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It exemplifies the convergence of eth- nography and history in the field of Cameroonian studies. This collection of essays celebrates that work-each contribution touches on different as- pects of the relationship of history and anthropology. History is illumi- nated by, and in much of Africa cannot be practised without, appreciation of the methods of anthropological fieldwork. Conversely, ethnography is enriched and enabled by the depth and awareness of change that follows the adoption of a historical perspective.
Through her work Sally Chilver has brought the complexity of the Cameroonian Grassfields, its history, mate- rial culture and ethnography to the attention of Africanist scholars. All the contributors to this issue of the journal and to its sister publications Fowler and Zeitlynfeel personally in her debt, and welcomed this opportunity to Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 to the project. Certainly, many of us associated with Sally Chilver have long given thought to ways in which her important contributions to Cameroon studies might be satisfactorily acknowledged.
The idea of a Festschrift was widely shared. The broader project of which this special issue of JASO forms a part is the welcome outcome of that happy conspiracy. The papers presented here deal with the ethnographic complexity which any historical synthesis must confront.
As if to further emphasise this, the first two volumes of the new Cameroon Studies Series consist of Edwin Ardener's collected papers on Cameroon and our volume for Sally.
In addition to these personal and intellectual connec- tions there is the Oxford connection, which continues to this day. Sally Chilver's links with Oxford encompass both formal and informal academic sectors.
On the one hand institutional ties: Issues to do with representations of identity have always been a strong undercurrent in anthropology. However, since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the eruption of 'ethnic' conflict in Europe identity has become the object of more focused attention. It has been said that Africa exists in its very own temporal space but in this instance there is Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 approximate simultaneity in the chronology of events, interpretation and action.
Here, too, the qualities and meaning of identity in cultural practice and political representation are deeply questioned in the context of the post-colonial African state. There are significant convergences and parallels, in both the events of Europe and Africa and the knowledge that is created in the inter- pretation of them, that remain to be explored.
Sally Chilver's life and academic endeavour significantly encompass all of these things. It is for this reason that we have included a biographical sketch as the introductory paper to this collection of essays. In So doing we mark, at least implicitly, the mutually constitutive qualities of actor, action and context. It is indisputable that as Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 and historians we may come to play significant roles in the production of the kinds of knowledge that tie in to the emergence of broad social and political group- ings in the Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 of the colony and the post-colony.
It is, perhaps, also inevitable that such knowledge may be incorporated into the armoury of the contemporary struggle for definition of locality and its articulation with the agents and offices of the post-colonial state. If identity is con- stantly reworked it is none the less fixed in narratives of the past. Since the early colonial period classification has been both a process of self- classification as well as classification by administrative officers and, Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 terly, by academics both expatriate and indigenous.
In these two key and related areas Sally Chilver has played, and continues to play a major and dove-tailing role in the production of knowledge for and of the Grassfields. Introduction 3 In a broader context Sally Chilver's contribution to the Africanist worldview and the knowledge contained and generated by it is also highly significant.
At a time when it was, perhaps, less than fashionable, Sally-to quote from Shirley Ardener's preface to African Crossroads-first went out to the 100 free dating and chat sites Products as 'an apprentice historian in stout boots' in the company of the anthropologist Phyllis Kaberry. This personal and academic alliance flouted the Free european dating sites GETRAG: Their Approach to PLM with Aras (5 Minutes) academic bias in anthropology that eschewed the knowledge of missionary, administrator and trader in favour of the monop- oly of the professional ethnographer.
Happily, for those of us who have followed into the field, Chilver's work with Kaberry did more than simply help to neutralise the effects of this disciplinary bias against history see Warnier's contribution in Fowler and Zeitlyn The nature of the histories Sally Chilver has pursued are equally signifi- cant. Her methodological approach is that of thick description applied at a series of levels from paramount to descent-group head. The salient pay- offs from this approach are, we believe, clearly demonstrated in the paired papers presented here that focus on historical issues.
In the first instance Zeitlyn offers a recension of Eldridge Mohammadou' s far broader regional depiction of the history of Central Cameroon.
The rebuttal of Moham- madou's case is presented in the form of a letter from Sally Chilver to Verkijika Fanso, a senior Cameroonian academic. We have also included a paper by Jean Hurault that deals with the history of the chiefdom of Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 olong. This represents a different, more geographically focused approach to the history of this region that draws in findings from settlement pat- terns, field archaeology and satellite photographs in addition to local his- tory and oral tradition.
It is certainly the case that Chilver has retained her focus on historical issues in her archivist reworking of her own fieldnotes and those of Ka- berry, and in on-going correspondence with Cameroonian colleagues. Yet she has become far more of an anthropologist than she might perhaps care to admit. A recently published paper on thaumaturgical belief in Nso' Chilver is a case in point. Not only has it been widely quoted in lit- erature on the Grassfields but, more importantly, it has significantly ad- vanced our knowledge of African religious belief in a region for which such knowledge has till now been sorely lacking.
The papers by Baeke, Gufler, Pradelles Busty dating site model on shows easydatingx.com Koloss reflect the ethno- graphic vein of her work.
Viviane Baeke, a student of Luc de Heusch, pres- ents an elaborate account of Wuli cosmology in the spirit of Chilver's paper, but reflecting also a greater concern for the structural implica- tions of the beliefs and practices she describes. The density Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 documenta- tion and analysis provided by Baeke is still all too rare among studies of the Grassfields region.
Charles-Henry Pradelles pays homage to Sally Chilver in a paper which links his recent work among the Pere with Chilver's ethnographic and his- torical research in Bali-Nyonga.
Pradelles has traced a ritual thread Mtv show online dating Overview of the Aras PLM Platform (2 Minutes) links the present-day Pere of the Tignere region of Adamawa Province and the Pere of Bali-Nyonga. Hermann Gufler is a Catholic missionary, parish priest of Sabongari at the far north of the North-West province.
His paper provides an example of how one missionary, inspired in part by his continuing correspondence with Sally Chilver, has built on the knowledge left by another. In this case Gufler, in collaboration with a local Yamba informant, has returned to one of the classic studies of the area: Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 Gebauer's monograph on spider divi- nation. Through a series of conversations with Pa Monday of Gom as well as with other diviners, Gufler is able to update and re-analyse Gebauer's ac- count of the system of ngam divination, a system which is not confined to the Yam ba, but is found throughout the southern half of Cameroon.
Much thought has gone into the transliteration of the indigenous terms in the articles that follow. Because the native languages of the researchers include English, German, and French there is variation in the transliteration conventions used. We have not attempted to impose a uniform system on the authors. It is increasingly common to use the International Phonetic Alphabet IPA to provide consistent representation, and this has been used in some of the articles below.
It is hoped that readers will not find the in- consistency between papers obtrusive. One additional point on transcrip- tion is worth making: In presenting this ensemble of papers we seek to illustrate not only the complexity Backdating facebook posts online dating how long before meeting in person Cameroonian society, but also the extent to which Sally Chilver has helped to influence and shape our understanding of the history and anthropology of the area.
Intersections between History and Anthro- pology in Cameroon, Oxford: From there my mother made her way to England, to Cornwall, where her parents had retired. We must have seemed an extraordinary party, including Louisa, a Greek nurse, and David, an Armenian manservant belonging to my father, whose life could have been in danger had he stayed; neither Louisa nor David had a word of English. The lonely David apparently did nothing but moon up and down the cliffs so it was naturally suspected that he was summoning German submarines.
My mother's name was Millicent Gilchrist; had she not been born in the Levant, she could probably have become a renowned pianist. She was the daughter of a Scottish entrepreneur, Gavin Gilchrist.
He and his family had wandered out from Clydeside and dealt in port services in the wake of the British Navy and merchant marine, branching out into other businesses along the sea routes. A few ended up in Australia. My mother married quite late, and mine was a difficult birth for her; soon after, she and my Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 were parted by the war for about four years. That may account for my being an only child.
My first memories are from there, the very hard winter ofwhen Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0 local canal iced over, and of my grandfather's death, which was puzzling to me.
After the war, my father fetched us all back to Turkey and we stayed there in a huge Gilchrist house, called Ranfurly, for three years. Then we became refugees once again during the Graeco-Turkish war; we found our- selves in Athens, escaping on a crowded Romanian boat, being deloused in an American Red Cross camp, kindly treated and fed till we found a hotel.
During the war he had got involved with T. Lawrence in the Arab Bureau and Revolt. My father's people say they started off as colonists in Ireland, no doubt Protestant exploiters, but some later became Home Rulers and identified with Irish causes.
The name is English and quite common. There is much family mythification-anyway, the younger sons went into clerical and professional occupations and their names are found in the records of Trin- ity College, Dublin, by the eighteenth century. One of them founded a his- torical society and another, my great-grandfather, was a don at TCD, a mathematician, historian and Irish bishop.
His brother, though, was profes- sor of law at the 'Godless College', University College, London, as well as an algebraist. The Anglo-Irish clergy were parasitic on the community, of Young jon hamm dating show KETTLER WORLD TOURS 2.0. Some were given little parishes to look after, sinecures, so they had enough leisure to engage in studies of Gaelic and Irish folklore and to think about higher mathematics.
Poor but privileged, three became Fellows of the Royal Society. One wonders how these clerics, with their very small in- comes, managed to raise huge families. My paternal great-grandfather, the Bishop, had nine surviving children; my grandfather ten, by two wives.
He was a civil servant, educationist and folklorist. I haven't mentioned the women; my remarkable aunts and great-aunts, some eccentric, none idle.
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