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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Business and Management Studies, Vol. February 26, Accepted: March 11, Online Published: March 18, doi: Moreover, we suggest that organizational change may not be as harmful for employees who possess positive attitude toward the process. We offer research propositions and discuss implications for future organizational change research.
Introduction Following recent financial crisis and economic downturn, a majority of citizens are being hit by large financial and housing wealth losses, much lower earnings prospects, and elevated uncertainty about job security International Monetary Fund, In Taiwan, military organizations operates under such financial strain are forced to adjust manpower structure in order to maintain national combat readiness, further improve the quality of the military personnel, and to better utilize defense resource National Defense Report [NDR], Therefore, since yearthe national military force started the reengineering process.
The organizational structure became fewer levels and the military manpower were reduced frompeople topeople, reaching a downsize scale of The final goal is to reduce military manpower topeople by the year NDR, It is therefore, not in the interest of this paper to discuss about the antecedents of organizational change, rather, it is the reactions of those that have gone through prior organizational change process to be the focus of this research.
The conservation of resources theory COR suggests that people would strive to retain, protect, and build resources when their valuable resources are subject to potential or actual losses Hobfoll, By adopting the COR perspective, we propose that, apart from financial resources, the military personnel would also be concerned about losses of organizational identity.
The identity survivors used to define themselves with may be wiped out as a result of further cut down, termination of a unit, or transferring to another unit. However, certain events are stressful only if they are thought to be threats to the physical self or the phenomenological self Hobfoll, Therefore, survivors shall not react in the same way.
Organizational change takes several forms such as reorganization of personnel or operations, reduction in force, merger, recapitalization, and so forth Backdating facebook posts online dating how long before meeting in person, Brett, Stroh, This debate has fall into two streams, one suggests that organizations are relatively malleable, able to adapt when circumstances change e.
This spectrum of research is prone to structural functionalism and systems theory explanation for organizational change. Despite low success rate of organizational Free christian dating online SLIDES: Keeping the Implementation Momentum Going With Aras PLM, economic reforms continue usually in forms of mass layoffs Rama, The incentives for downsizing involve cost-cutting and pursuance of organizational effectiveness Freeman, In some situations, redesign is likely to follow downsizing when change is forced by the need to accommodate the workload with fewer employees.
At this point, stress and work overload are common in these circumstances Freeman, Hobfoll identified four types of resources in the COR model and these include: The concept of loss is central to the COR model Hobfoll, Following an organizational change, survivors may face changes of job title, job content, workload, work location, or even loss of group members, and find themselves in an awkward position.
When survivors first entered the organization, they were socialized in whichever form i. Those required actions for organizational change facilitation may contribute to role conflict, ambiguity, and alienation of employees, which are antecedents of stress-related outcomes. Well-being is often discussed in stress models as individual outcomes. As originally proposed by Schaufeli and Bakkerthere are two dimensions of well-being, burnout and engagement, which are independent of each other.
However, Schaufeli, Taris, and Van Rhenen added another dimension to well-being and the validation process again claimed that the newly added dimension workaholismburnout, and engagement are three different Free christian dating online SLIDES: Keeping the Implementation Momentum Going With Aras PLM of employee well-being rather than three of a kind.
The definition of workaholism adopted by Schaufeli et al. Likewise, workaholics refer to people who tend to allocate an exceptional amount of time to work and they Free christian dating online SLIDES: Keeping the Implementation Momentum Going With Aras PLM so hard out of an inner compulsion, need, or drive, not because of external factors such as financial rewards, career perspectives, organizational culture, or poor marriage.
This newly added dimension seemed inappropriate for the conceptual model proposed in this paper because organizational change exists as an external force that pushes employees to form some attitude and responds with actions they deemed appropriate.
As a result, only burnout and engagement as representations of employee well-being will be discussed. However, in later research, Leiter and Schaufeli tested the consistency of the burnout construct across occupations and derived positive Free christian dating online SLIDES: Keeping the Implementation Momentum Going With Aras PLM.
Gradually, it became obvious that burnout also exists outside the human services. Dimension of burnout includes: High scores on exhaustion and cynicism, and low scores on professional efficacy, are indicative of burnout.
Unlike those who suffer from burnout, engaged employees have a sense of energetic and effective connection with their work activities and they see themselves as able to deal well with the demands of their job Schaufeli et al.
Engagement is characterized by: However, if a personal has a broad resource pool, then he or she is more likely to successfully break the cycle of loss spiral Hobfoll, This contention resembles the supposition of COR theory which links burnout to a net loss, or fear of loss, of valued resources Hobfoll, ; Neveu, It is developed from the idea of cognitive map that involves the attributes of change events and the relationships among these events; therefore, it is context-specific Walsh, The change salience dimension involves a cognitive element of affirming the need to and significance Free christian dating online SLIDES: Keeping the Implementation Momentum Going With Aras PLM change, seeking more information, and the willingness to help out changes; change valence represents an understanding of the benefits of change and reform and hence the confidence and commitment to change; and change inference describes the evaluation and concerns one has over the change event Lau et al.
When survivors have a strong belief in the necessity of change, supportive mindset toward change, and positive appraisal of the result, then the danger or threats of lost identification to oneself is mitigated, and the survivors will be more likely to invest vigor and dedication in the job. Although there are various ways to define what is a successful change outcome, when it comes to management of employees, their physical and psychological well-beings are always the main concern.
In line with the supposition of COR theory, it is implied that organizational change may serve as a threat to individuals, despite prior levels of organizational identification, individuals may develop stress-related symptoms such as burnout. As the authors aware of, there have not been any studies conducted to examine the positive dimension of well-being on employees who have gone through organizational change.
A workplace filled with distressful individuals will not do any good to the change process. Even for organizations that have over hundreds of employees, size does not necessarily promise for job security. Certainly, the employees may feel proud to be identified with the organization, but when it comes to turbulent times, some humanized actions e.
Employees need assurance or at least enough information about the change process to form a positive attitude toward the organizational change. The conceptual model proposed here suggests a possibility that once employees approve of the change about to come, organizations will face less resistance and succeed in the process.
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